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Cirrhosis is scarring of the liver and poor liver function. It is the last stage of chronic liver disease.
Liver cirrhosis; Cryptogenic chronic liver disease
Cirrhosis is the end result of chronic liver damage caused by chronic liver disease. Common causes of chronic liver disease in the United States are:
Less common causes of cirrhosis include:
- Autoimmune hepatitis
- Bile duct disorders
- Some medicines
- Hereditary diseases
- Other liver diseases, such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)
There may be no symptoms, or symptoms may come on slowly, depending on how well the liver is working.
Early symptoms include:
- Fatigue and loss of energy
- Poor appetite and weight loss
- Nausea or belly pain
- Small, red spider-like blood vessels on the skin
As liver function worsens, symptoms may include:
- Fluid buildup of the legs (edema) and in the abdomen (ascites)
- Yellow color in the skin, mucus membranes, or eyes (jaundice)
- Redness on the palms of the hands
- In men, impotence, shrinking of the testicles, and breast swelling
- Easy bruising and abnormal bleeding
- Confusion or problems thinking
- Pale or clay-colored stools
Exams and Tests
Your doctor will do a physical exam to look for:
- An enlarged liver or spleen
- Excess breast tissue
- Swollen abdomen, as a result of too much fluid
- Reddened palms
- Red spider-like blood vessels on the skin
- Small testicles
- Widened veins in the abdomen wall
- Yellow eyes or skin (jaundice)
You may have the following tests to measure liver function:
Other tests to check for liver damage include:
- Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the abdomen
- Endoscopy to check for abnormal veins in the esophagus or stomach
- Ultrasound of the abdomen
You will need a liver biopsy to confirm the diagnosis.
Some things you can do to help take care of your liver disease are:
- Drink less alcohol.
- Eat a healthy diet that is low in salt
- Get vaccinated for diseases such as influenza, hepatitis A and hepatitis B, and pneumococcal pneumonia
- Talk to your doctor about all medicines you take, including herbs and supplements and over-the-counter medicines
MEDICINES FROM YOUR DOCTOR
- Water pills" (diuretics) to get rid of fluid build-up
- Vitamin K or blood products to prevent excess bleeding
- Medicines for mental confusion
- Antibiotics for infections
- Endoscopic treatments for enlarged veins in the throat (bleeding varicies)
- Removal of fluid from the abdomen (paracentesis)
- Placement of a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) to repair blood flow in the liver
When cirrhosis progresses to end-stage liver disease, a liver transplant may be needed.
You can often ease the stress of illness by joining a liver disease support group whose members share common experiences and problems.
Cirrhosis is caused by scarring of the liver. The liver cannot heal or return to normal function once damage is severe. Cirrhosis can lead to serious complications.
- Bleeding disorders (coagulopathy)
- Buildup of fluid in the abdomen (ascites) and infection of the fluid (bacterial peritonitis)
- Enlarged veins in the esophagus, stomach, or intestines that bleed easily (esophageal varices)
- Increased pressure in the blood vessels of the liver (portal hypertension)
- Kidney failure (hepatorenal syndrome)
- Liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma)
- Mental confusion, change in the level of consciousness, or coma (hepatic encephalopathy)
When to Contact a Medical Professional
Call your health care provider if:
- You develop symptoms of cirrhosis
- Abdominal or chest pain
- Abdominal swelling or ascites that is new or suddenly becomes worse
- A fever (temperature greater than 101 °F)
- New confusion or a change in alertness, or it gets worse
- Rectal bleeding, vomiting blood, or blood in the urine
- Shortness of breath
- Vomiting more than once a day
- Yellowing skin or eyes (jaundice) that is new or gets worse quickly
Don't drink alcohol heavily. Talk to your doctor if you are worried about your drinking. Take steps to prevent getting or passing hepatitis B or C.
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Garcia-Tsao G. Cirrhosis and its sequelae. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 156.
Mehta G, Rothstein KD. Health maintenance issues in cirrhosis. Med Clin North Am. 2009;93:901-915.
O’Shea RS, Dasarathy S, McCullough AJ et al. AASLD Practice Guidelines: Alcoholic liver disease. HEPATOLOGY. 2010;51(1).
Carithers RL, Mcclain CJ. Alcoholic liver diseases. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds.Sleisenger & Fordtran’s Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2010:chap 84.
Reviewed By: George F. Longstreth, MD, Department of Gastroenterology, Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program, San Diego, California. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Bethanne Black, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.