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Pressure ulcers - what to ask your doctor

Definition:

Pressure ulcers are also called bedsores, or pressure sores. They can form when your skin and soft tissue press against a harder surface, such as a chair or bed for a prolonged time. This pressure reduces the blood supply to that area. Lack of blood supply can cause the skin tissue in this area to become damaged or die. When this happens, a pressure ulcer may form.

Below are some questions you may want to ask your health care provider to help you or the person taking care of you to prevent and take care of pressure ulcers.



Alternate Names:

What to ask your doctor about pressure ulcers; Bedsores - what to ask your doctor



Questions:

Which parts of the body are more likely to get pressure sores?

  • How often do these areas need to be looked at?
  • What are the signs that a pressure ulcer is beginning to form?

What is the best way to take care of my skin every day?

  • What types of lotions, creams, ointments, and powders are best to use?
  • What type of clothing is best to wear?

What type of diet is best to prevent pressure ulcers or to help them heal?

When lying in bed:

  • What positions are best when lying down?
  • What types of padding or cushioning should I use?
  • Should I use special mattresses or mattress covers? Sheets? Pajamas or other clothing?
  • How often should I change my position?
  • What is the best way to move or be moved around while I am in bed?
  • What is the best way to transfer from bed to a wheelchair or chair?

If there is leakage of stool or urine, what else should be done to prevent pressure ulcers?

If using a wheelchair:

  • How often should someone make sure the wheelchair is the right size?
  • What type of cushions should I use?
  • What is the best way to transfer into and out of the wheelchair?
  • How often should I change position?

If a pressure ulcer or sore is present:

  • What type of dressing should I use?
  • How often does the dressing need to be changed?
  • What are the signs that the ulcer is getting worse or is infected?

When should the doctor or nurse be called?



References:

Black JM, Edsberg LE, Baharestani MM, et al. Pressure ulcers: avoidable or unavoidable? Results of the National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel Consensus Conference. Ostomy Wound Manag. 2011;57:24–37. PMID: 21350270. Available at: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21350270 .

Hafner A, Sprecher E. Ulcers. In: Bolognia JL, Jorizzo JL, Schaffer JV, eds. Dermatology. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 105. 

Perry D, Borchert K, Burke S, et al., Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement. Pressure ulcer prevention and treatment Protocol. Updated January 2012. Available at: www.icsi.org/_asset/6t7kxy/PressureUlcer.pdf. Accessed July 30, 2014.




Review Date: 7/30/2014
Reviewed By: Richard J. Moskowitz, MD, dermatologist in Ppivate practice, Mineola, NY. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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