Pain medicine is a medical specialty that focuses on the evaluation, treatment and prevention of pain. Anesthesiologists, neurologists, physiatrists and neurosurgeons most frequently specialize in pain management. Pain management physicians specialize in the the management of pain that results from disease symptoms, such as arthritis, fibromyalgia, injury and cancer pain. They also treat pain as a primary condition, such as migraine headaches and neuropathic pain. Pain medicine specialists work in a variety of settings, including private practices, hospitals and pain clinics.